近期的经济数据验证了咱们之前对经济周期在2019年复苏的猜测，但周期性板块并没有彻底参加商场周期性的复苏 – 周期性板块应该很快将跑赢商场。房地产建造出资的增加，地方政府债券发行激增所暗示的、行将敞开的基建出资，以及从头显现经济扩张的PMI，都标明我国经济呈现了周期性复苏。奇怪的是，周期性职业并没有彻底参加其时的商场的周期性批改。
美元不再走强有利于新式商场和A股。交易加权的美元汇率现在运转到一个历史上无法跨越的高点——上一次是在2016年12月特朗普赢得大选后。美联储暂停加息，以及我国倾向于钱银宽松方针而引领的经济周期复苏，很或许会按捺美元的强势。美元的强势一般反映了美元流动性正在下降。这种情形对新式商场和A股都是晦气的影响 – 如2018年。现在，状况必定正好相反。
Epic money and credit growth suggests resolve to reflate the economy.There should be no more doubt by now about the central bank’s resolve to reflate the economy. Surging short-term bills financing can be a source of speculative market activities in the near term. While the PBoC may have to rebalance the epic monetary growth in March at a later stage, the resolve demonstrated by this set of monetary statistics also suggests the equal importance of not rocking the boat and nipping the nascent recovery in the bud. Epic liquidity flow will turn into better fundamentals sooner or later.
Recent data confirm the cyclical upturn we foresaw, but cyclicals have not participated in the cyclical revival – cyclicals should soon outperform.Property construction spending growth and the coming infrastructure spending hinted by the surge in local government bond issuance, as well as the re-expanding PMI, all suggest a cyclical revival. Oddly, the cyclical sectors have not participated in full in the current cyclical upturn.
Earnings revision in many cyclical sectors is rising from its lows seen in late December, but not to the extent of that of their defensive comrades. This is consistent with the observations in the past cyclical inflection points, when defensives passed the market leadership onto cyclicals as the recovery spread. This time will not be different. The weak relative performance of cyclicals suggests overlooked investment opportunities.
Market remains skeptical of the recovery, auguring well for further gains ahead.Our proprietary market sentiment model suggests entrenched skepticism towards the current recovery. The impending fundamental improvements will convert bears into bulls. With the epic monetary data in the bag, the market will start to look for, and soon should have confirming evidence of a cyclical recovery, as fundamentals tend to ensue after strong liquidity growth. A virtuous feedback loop will be established. As such, the prevailing caution in the market hints at further upside in the market. We reiterate that, at this juncture, the long-term rising trend trumps short-term fluctuations.
The peaking dollar a tailwind fo狒狒人品r EMs and A shares.The trade-weighted dollar is at its highs which it was unable to scale in the past – last time it was December 2016 after Trump’s election victory. A pausing Fed and a PBoC with easing bias are likely to check the dollar strength. The strong dollar suggests dwindling dollar liquidity, and h弹弹堂,洪灝：经济周期确认了一个重要的拐点（Cyclical Inflection Point is Confirmed）,大公鸡ad been a headwind for EMs and A shares. Now the reverse must be true.
As we have demonstrated, the return in A shares is more the result of valuation multiple expansion than earnings growth. But to gain most from both factors amid epic monetary expansion and a cyclical revival, we should position in the cyclical sectors with the greatest room for upward earnings revision. The market recovery in 2009 induced by the 4-trillion-yuan stimulus lasted ten months. And the economic revival continued after that. It is now four months since the market bottomed in early January.
Cyclical Inflection Point is Confirmed
“The importance of money flows from it being a link between the present and the future.” – John Maynard Keynes
Ch弹弹堂,洪灝：经济周期确认了一个重要的拐点（Cyclical Inflection Point is Confirmed）,大公鸡ina’s monetary statistics have shown the policy preference of the PBoC. By now, there should not be any doubt about the central bank’s resolve to reflate the battered economy from an array of mishaps and missteps in 2018 – the trade war, overarching deleveraging campaign and supply-side curbs that had started to self-inflict. With progress being made on all three fronts, we continue to believe that, for the market, the long-term upward trend is more important than any short-term fluctuations.
That said, there are some incongruities in the recent data release. For instance, import growth appears weak and below expectations, and suggests sluggish domestic demand – contrary to the strong monetary data. Of the lending statistics, long-term demand for loans from both companies and households has yet to recover in full. Bank bills and notes financing, as well as short-term lending, are used to compensate the demand shortfall for loans. The accelerated issuance of local government bonds and the deployment of fiscal deposits have bulked up the money supply statistics.
To the stock market speculators, these inconsistencies are less pertinent than the grandeur of new loans and total social financing – both at their historic highs. While the structure of the monetary data could have been better, the freshly-injected liquidity will help the economy to reflate. And short-term bank bills and lending are more prone to be applied to speculative market activities – similar to 2009 and 2015.
A Missing Piece in This Rally
Cyclical inflection point is confirmed. Sinceshanz 2017, we have done extensive quantitative research into short economic cycles, both in the US and in China. Our models have clearly identified the existence of 3 to 3.5-year cycles in these economies. These short cycles ebb and flow with regularity, as evidenced by the similarity a邻家娇妻文秋nd simultaneity of fluctuations across various macroeconomic variables and across countries. The cycles seem to be fluctuating rhythmically around an underlying trend. Deviation from general rules that prevail in the sequence of the cycles is very rare.
Even when there is deviation from the underlying trend, such deviation tends to accelerate or retard its own momentum, rather than that of the underlying trends. The absence of such deviation and the simultaneity of the fluctuations across an array of macroeconomic variables are a remarkable proof of the cycle’s existence.
In our 2019 outlook report “”, and its follow-up report “”, we foresaw the turning o夏凡的老婆f China’s short economic cycle in 2019, and the potential recovery of risk asset prices. The challenge then when making this call was to estimate how strong the recovery in asset prices could be, and the contingencies of the trade war. In hindsight, our estimate that the Shanghai Composite should climb above 2,900 when the index was still lingering around 2,500 has proven to be grossly conservative.
With strong recovery in property construction spending and the coming infrastructure spending hinted by the increase in local government bond issuance, our economic cycle model has shown a decisive upturn in China’s 3-year economic cycle. More importantly, our cycle models for other risk assets that have exhibited consistent property to lead economic activities, such as copper,弹弹堂,洪灝：经济周期确认了一个重要的拐点（Cyclical Inflection Point is Confirmed）,大公鸡 are also turning up.
Interestingly, the interval of the copper cycle is also about 3 to 3.5 years, coinciding with the length of China’s economic cycle and its key inflection points in the past. In Figure 1 – 3, we show that the revival in the copper cycle, together with other growth-sensitive asset prices, validates the reflation in China’s 3-year economic cycle.
Figure 1:Copper’s 3~3.5 year cycle is recovering, and is confirmed by other leading indicators
Figure 2:China’s economic cycle is reviving, and so are asset pricedlzss (commodities/bonds/currency)
Note: Property construction, part of overall completed property investment that also includes land purchase, is more closely correlated with economic activities. Due to the irregularities of the data release since 2017, we have used the construction data series to calculate the property investment cycle. Only selected cyclical charts are shown here. For complete detailed discussions on China’s 3-year short economic cycle, please refer to your reports titl弹弹堂,洪灝：经济周期确认了一个重要的拐点（Cyclical Inflection Point is Confirmed）,大公鸡ed “A Definitive Guide to China’s Economic Cycles” (20170324) and “A Definitive Guide to China’s Economic Cycles II – New High”(20170828).
Figure 3:China’s economic cycle is reviving, as evidenced by the PBoC’s balance sheet, M1 and earnings
Note: Property construction, part of overall completed property investment that also includes land purchase, is more closely correlated with economic activities. Due to the irregularities of the data release since 2017, we have used the constructi市长的初恋爱人on data series to calculate the property investment cycle. Only selected cyclical charts are shown here. For complete detailed discussions on China’s 3-year short economic cycle, please refer to your reports tit天龙同人led “A Definitive Guide to China’s Economic Cycles” (20170324) and “A Definitive Guide to China’s Economic Cycles II – New High”(20170828).
But cyclicals have not participated in this rally in full. Given that the cycle is truly turning, it is reasonable to assume that cyclicals should lead the current rally. However, the reality is quite the contrary:YTD, there is no clear leadership from the cyclicals; forestry, fishery and animal husbandry has been the best performing sector, followed by food and beverages, home appliances, etc.
There are pockets of cyclical strength, which, however, is not prominent. Overall, cyclicals’ relative performance as a whole continue to languish around low levels consistent with levels seen at the inflection points of previous economic cycles (Figure 4). That is, the market is still in doubt of the cyclical recovery, and such qualms are shown in the cyclicals’ weak relative performance.
Figure 4:The relative performance of cyclicals has not reflected the upturn of China’s economic cycle
Market sentiment hints at skepticism towards the current market recovery.Years ago when we first returned from Wall Street to apply western market theories to analyze the Chinese mainland market, we created the first market sentiment model for the A-share market based on behavioral economics.
Our market sentiment model triangulates the pricing discrepancies between various asset classes to find mispriced opportunities. It is a contrarian indicator of the forward return of the A-share market:the more cautious the market sentiment is as implied in the prices of various asset classes, the more constructive the outlook for market forward return.
We have given a master-class public lecture organized by one of China’s most influential new media groups on how to measure market sentiment. It is a pleasure to see that many market researchers lately have come up with their own versions of market sentiment models.
While not infallible, our market sentiment model for the A-share market did help us negotiate the tempestuous torrents in the mainland stock market, pinpointing the market inflection points in June 2013 (the liquidity crisis), August 2014 (the inception of “the Great China Bubble”), June 2015 (the peak of “the Great China Bubble”), and the market bottom in early 2016. The model performs its best at important inflection points, and less so at intertemporal fluctuation within a larger and longer trend.
Figure 5:The market is still skeptical of the rally; cautious sentiment augurs further gains ahead
Despite the ripping rally, our sentiment model for the A-share market continues to suggest market suspicion towards the rally. Many still think that the rally is unfounded, and economic fundamentals remain feeble. For instance, the companies failing earning expectations the most have substantially outperformed.弹弹堂,洪灝：经济周期确认了一个重要的拐点（Cyclical Inflection Point is Confirmed）,大公鸡 It appears to be a junk rally at this stage. But which episode of market - recovery in the A shares doesn’t start with junks and then spread out?As credit and money supply grows, fundamentals will catch up – sooner or later.
Earnings revision momentum also shows strength in defensive sectors while cyclicals lag.We can also examine analysts’ earnings revision momentum by sector and industry groups from a bottom-up perspective to identify sectors where improvements in earnings are fully priced in, while those with rising earnings prospects should soon catch 瘦尼减肥腰带怎么样up.
Our bottom-up aggregation of a few thousand listed companies shows that the overall market momentum of earnings revision is high and rising, 弹弹堂,洪灝：经济周期确认了一个重要的拐点（Cyclical Inflection Point is Confirmed）,大公鸡after collapsing to its historic lows in late December and early January. The timing of the collective sell-side pessimism coincides with the market bottom in the current cycle. Its improvement above its long-term average but be弹弹堂,洪灝：经济周期确认了一个重要的拐点（Cyclical Inflection Point is Confirmed）,大公鸡low its historical upper bound suggests further room for improvement (Appendix).
Further, we see that the price movement of many defensive sectors appears to have fully priced in the recovery. But that of many cyclical sectors, such as banks, real estate, energy, non-bank financials, materials, discretionary consumption, software/technology, etc. is high and rising, and should have room to improve further (Please see Appendix for charts of earnings revision momentum in sectors and industry groups).
Cyclicals should start to outperform.It is odd that the cyclical revival in the Chinese economy, as shown by the latest PMI, exports growth and money/credit growth, is not reflected in cyclicals’ relative performance. That said, a close examination of the cyclical inflection points in the past reveals that defensive sectors tend to outperform at the later stage o不言春风f the economic cycle. And such relative strength in defensive sectors tends to stretch into the early stage of tromstarhe cyclical upswing – until defensives hand over the baton of market leadership to cyclicals.
To be precise, cycles have neither beginning nor end. The do掌家幺女wnturn of the previous cycle also ushers in the upturn of an ensuing cycle. The eventual recovery in the cyclicals’ relative performance will be a testament to the reflation of China’s economic cycle.
Market skepticism towards the current market recovery augurs well for higher highs.Our quantitative market sentiment model suggests doubts towards the current market recovery. As there is still much hesitation left, the c吕易圣艾灸液ontinuing improvements that are likely to come in the Chinese economy will gradually convert doubters into believers.
We are at the stage of “bad news is good news, good new奔向风雨中s is better news”, given the market sentiment. When market sentiment is elevated into euphoria, as it is likely河州平弦 to be at a later stage, good news will then be interpreted as bad news, marking the peak of market recovery. We are still some way off.
Peaking Dollar suggests impro忍者高飞ving liquidity conditions for EMs, including A shares.The Fed雪之约好 has turned dovish by stopping interest rate hike and slowing or even pausing balance sheet reduct钢铁躯壳ion. The ECB and BoJ have both signaled further monetary easing if necessary. The PBoC has just shown strong resolve to reflate the Chinese economy by epic money and credit supply growth.
It feels like Jackson Hole 2014 all over again - when global central banks reached consensus regarding further monetary easing. In a cyclical revival and an environment of improved risk appetite as a result, the trade-weighted dollar should stop strengthening, or even start to weaken. The combination of these factors is conducive to further gains in EMs and A shares (Figure 6).
Figure 6:Trade-weighted USD should depreciate, supporting global liquidity and risk appetite
Appendix 1:Earnings estimates have recovered from their lows seen in last October
Source: FactSet, BOCOM Int'l
Appendix 2.1:Earnings revision has recovered across sectors, but cyclicals have not participated in full
Source: FactSet, BOCOM Int'l
Appendix 2.2:Earnings revision has recovered across sectors, but cyclicals have not participated in full
Source: FactSet, BOCOM Int'l
Appendix 2.3:Earnings revision has recovered across sectors, but cyclicals have not participated in full
Source: FactSet, BOCOM Int'l